Elderberry: What it is,  Benefits, and Side Effects

Elderberry: What it is, Benefits, and Side Effects

Elderberry is one of the most commonly used medicinal plants grown and used throughout the world.

It has had many medical purposes in the past, aging all the way back to ancient Egypt, but currently it is taken as a supplement to boost the immune system.


What is Elderberry?

Elderberry is, in fact, a berry. The Elderberry includes a variety of flowering trees that produce the beneficial berries. While the most common of these trees grows in Europe (Sambucus nigra, AKA: the European elderberry or black elder) different varieties of the tree are found and grown on several continents worldwide (1).

This berry is also bursting with nutrients, which is one of the most notable qualities it has health-wise. Elderberry is high in vitamin C, fiber, and several antioxidants including phenolic acids, flavonols, anthocyanins (1).

When consumed correctly, this versatile berry has many uses and has been used around the world for a variety of medicinal reasons for thousands of years. The benefits may include a boost to the immune system, mood stabilization, ability as an antioxidant, and protection against UV rays.


5 Benefits of Elderberry

  1. High in a variety of nutrients

Elderberries, like most fruits, are low in calories and packed with nutrients. However, this berry provides a unique combination of nutrients that make it exceptionally beneficial when consumed. These include vitamin C, fiber, and several antioxidants.

Vitamin CIf 3.5 ounces of berries (½ cup, approximately) are consumed, around 60% of the daily requirement of vitamin C will be met (i.e., 90mg for men and 75mg for women (2)) (1).

This micronutrient plays an important role in several vital body functions, including immune system health, bones strength, healing and antioxidant function, iron absorption, and healthy aging (2).

Fiber There are 7 grams of fiber in every 3.5 ounces (½ cup) of berries, which meets ¼ of the recommended daily intake of fiber (i.e., 25 to 30 grams per day) (1).

Fiber plays an important role in keeping the digestive system functioning effectively and keeps us feeling fuller longer. It also effectively reduces blood sugar and cholesterol levels and their linked health risks.

AntioxidantsAntioxidants found in high number in Elderberries. The specific antioxidative compounds in this berry are phenolic acids, flavonols, anthocyanins (1).

Phenolic acids are powerful antioxidants that can help reduce damage from oxidative stress in the body (1).

Flavonols have been shown benefit the circulatory system by aiding in lowering blood pressure and improving blood flow to the brain and heart. The flavonols in Elderberries include quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin (1).


  • High in antioxidants

    As stated above, Elderberry is high in several key antioxidants that enhance your white blood cells’ ability to protect against the effects of harmful free radicals.

    The specific antioxidative compounds in this berry are phenolic acids, flavonols, anthocyanins (1).


    • Boost the immune system

      Elderberry is most effective when it comes to its effect on the immune system. (1).


      • Could protect against UV rays

        Protecting against UV rays was a main use of elderberries by the Egyptians. Elderberry extract has a SPF (Sun Protection Factor) of 9.88 (1). However, this is still quite low when considering modern sun defense.

        Egyptians also used to use the extract from elderberry to heal burns caused by overexposure to the sun or other scalding substances.


        • Bonus – Using the Elder tree leaves, flowers, and bark

          It’s not all about the berry.

          Historically, the leaves, flowers, and bark of the Elder tree have been used as well to provide a variety of benefits.

          From the tree, the bark was consumed as a diuretic, laxative, and to induce vomiting when necessary. The leave and flowers have been used for pain relief, swelling, inflammation, and as a diuretic (1).

          The elderberry flowers also contain the highest ratio of flavonols; 10 times more than the berries themselves (1). They can also be eaten, raw or cooked.


          Potential side effects of Elderberry

          And while it can provide several health benefits, the berry should be consumed cooked or via approved supplements because consuming the berries raw can be dangerous. The raw berries, or bark and leaves of the tree, are known to be poisonous and can cause stomach problems if eaten (1).

          As always, if you are experiencing any of these negative reactions seek out the advice of a medical professional immediately.


          Dosage recommendations for Elderberry

          There are currently no recommendations for elderberry supplementation.

          Despite these berries being packed with nutrients and antioxidants that may provide various benefits, there is still much research to be done on elderberry and health (3).

          Best practices are to use supplements you’ve purchased from a trusted brand, rely on the product for short-term use (between 2 to 5 days), and seek the advice of a medical professional if you are ever in doubt (4).


          What Elderberry supplement is right for you?

          Elderberry supplements come in several forms -- gummies, capsules, drops, extracts, and syrup (3). You just have to determine your need, use, and preference.

          Whichever you happen to select, ensure you purchase a trustworthy brand and thoroughly review the usage instructions.

          Remember, though there is data on elderberry, there is still ample research to be done on topics like dosage. So if you are ever in doubt, seek the advice of a medical professional.

          Author: Allison Lansman, RDN, LD



          1. https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/elderberry
          2. https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/vitamin-c-benefits#section5
          3. https://www.todaysdietitian.com/newarchives/0519p8.shtml
          4. https://www.champagnenutrition.com/elderberry-traditional-anti-flu-treatment/